Advance Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Science
Volume 2, No. 3 and 4 May-July 2015
Table of Content
1. AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE STATUS OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN INDIA
Senior Research Fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of Lucknow
ABSTRACT: Health and illness were interpreted in a cosmological and anthropological prospective. Medicine was dominated by magical and religious beliefs which were an integral part of ancient cultural and civilization. Over the years development planning in India has focused on reducing the burden of illness and mortality among women and children. A large number of development and public health programmes such as the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) have been geared towards this, since a long time. India is committed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, particularly with respect to maternal and child health. Awareness generation is a major responsibility and fundamental importance, to ensure utilization of various healthcare programmes implemented by Government. The Indian healthcare sector can be viewed as a glass half empty or a glass half full. In this research paper author focuses on The Status of health care services in India.
Key words: Health, Public Health Programmes, Health Care, Child Development Services (ICDS), Millennium Development Goal
2. VERMICOMPOST, A BEST SUPERLATIVE FOR ORGANIC FARMING: A REVIEW
Gotha A. R. High School, Chadnichak hat, Suti-I, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India, Pin- 742223
ABSTRACT: Agrochemicals which drive the ‘green revolution’ came as a ‘mixed blessing’ for mankind. Over the years it has worked like a ‘slow poison’ for the environment and the society. To resolve the various problems related to ‘human food safety, nutritional quality and environmental security’ a global movement is going on to scientifically revive the traditional ‘Organic Farming’ systems. Organic farming is conceived as one of the alternatives to conventional agriculture in order to sustain production without seriously harming the environment and ecology which are more scientific than those of the conventional. Vermiculture or vermicompost may be a best alternative for organic farming. Vermicompost can have dramatic effects upon the germination, growth, flowering, fruiting and yields of crops. Application of vermicompost increases soil health, soil minerals, water holding capacity, soil micro-organisms and nutritional values of yielding crop as well as decreases plant pest populations. Vermicomposting is a self-promoted, self-regulated, self-improved and self-enhanced, low or no-energy requiring zero-waste technology, easy to construct, operate and maintain. It excels all other biological or mechanical technologies for production of ‘bio-fertilizer’.
Keywords: Agrochemical, conventional agriculture, green revolution, organic farming, vermiculture, vermicompost.
3. ASSESSMENT OF COMMON PRACTICES OF EGG
INCUBATION AND CHICK BROODING OF BACKYARD POULTRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN
WOLAITA ZONE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
Feleke Assefa Argaw
Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Wolaita Sodo University, P.O. Box 128, Wolaita, Ethiopia.
ABSTRACT: A survey was conducted in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia to assess local egg selection practices, brooding practices, practices of breaking broodiness, techniques of egg fertility testing, and factors related with incubation. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to select weredas, sample kebeles and respondents in which the three weredas were selected by purposive sampling technique. Pretested structured questionnaire and focused group discussion were employed to generate data. All generated survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of SPSS 20. Broody hens were the only means of egg incubation and chick brooding. Broody hens were selected based primarily on body size, broody character, ability of defending predator and number of eggs laid from which broody character predominates the other parameters. Eggs laid at home were the predominant source of egg for incubation and selected mainly based on size, shape and season in which the egg is laid. A bamboo basket bedded with teff straw, a nest on the ground and a nest under bed were the common laying nest preparations. Farmers practiced to store eggs in either directly on the laying nest, in cold room and on the grain. The preferable season of allowing broody hen to hatch was from October to December because of better feed access, less predator and better chick survivability. Majority of the farmers practice cleaning the egg by cloth as treatment. Shaking the egg was the commonly used method of checking egg fertility. Farmers attempt to increase egg production by stimulating broody hens to resume laying through various practices from which moving to neighbors was the most common.
Keywords: Breaking Broodiness, Broody hen, Egg selection Criteria, Egg storage, Fertility assessment and Priority index
4. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DRY SEASON CROP PRODUCTION IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA
Abdulhameed Abana Girei, Usman Haruna, Salamatu Umaru
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Nassarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria.
Dean, School of General Studies, Federal University, Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria
School of Postgraduate Studies, ModibboAdama University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria
ABSTRACT: Dry season crop production is considered one of the major priority areas that have gained major support and incentives from both the federal government of Nigeria and Adamawa State in particular. The research determined the economic efficiency of dry season farming in some communities in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Percentages and stochastic frontier production function was used for the analysis. Multistage stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used in the selection of the local government areas and the respondents for the research..The analysis has shown that the least efficient farmer had economic efficiency of 32 percent with the highest efficient farmer having economic efficiency of 92 percent. A fairly majority of the respondents representing 86 respondents accounted for 53.76% Over all, the average economic efficiencyof the respondents was found to be 61 percent, indicating that the farmers realized just above half of their production potentials; The major positive factors affecting the economic efficiency have been identified to be education, extension and age contact were positively signed and significantly related with economic efficiency as it provided the farmers better access to technical knowledge and possibly helped in enhancing their bargaining power.There are more prospects for further improvement in the economic efficiency of the farmers by appropriate adjustment in their technical and cost efficiencies. It is therefore imperative establish policies that aimed at holistically improving dry season farming possibly through improving farmers’ access to credit, timely distribution of productive inputs and increase in the number of extension contactsand encourage them to intensify their efforts particularly on effective resource allocation and utilization to boost farmers’ productivity and enhance their capacities in harnessing other ways of increasing income. This can go a long way in improving the economic efficiency of dry season farming.
Keywords: Analysis,EconomicEfficiency, Dry Season, Crop Production, Communities
5. RESPONSE OF SOIL MICROFLORA AND EARTHWORMS TO PYRAZOSULFURON EHTYL, A NEW GENERATION HERBICIDE IN TRANSPLANTED RICE IN THE ENTISOLS OF VELLAYANI, SOUTH KERALA
POORNIMA YADAV,P.I*., ELIZABETH .K.SYRIAC1 AND GIRIJA.V.K2
*Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kollam, Kerala Agricultural University, Sadanandapuram P O, Kottarakara,Kollam, Kerala-691531, India
1 and 2College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University,Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala,India
ABSTRACT: Indiscriminate and continuous application of herbicides in an intensive cropping system may adversely affect the soil ecosystem including soil micro and macro organisms. Pyrazosulfuron ethyl (PSE) is a low dose high efficacy herbicide coming under the group of sulfonyl ureas which is effective for controlling a wide range of weeds in low land rice. Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons ie., second and third crop seasons at the Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Vellayani to study the effect of PSE on soil microflora and earthworms in transplanted rice in the entisols of Vellayani, South Kerala. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design which consisted of eight treatments with three replications. The treatments included four different levels of pyrazosulfuron ethyl (15, 20, 25 and 30 g ai ha-1), butachlor (1.5 kg ai ha-1), weed free check, unweeded check and hand weeding twice (at 20 and 40 days after transplanting). The control plots (weed free check and unweeded check) and farmers practice (hand weeding twice) recorded higher fungal and bacterial population and were significantly different from all other herbicide treatments. Herbicides significantly caused an inhibitory effect on the growth of fungi and bacteria in the initial stages; however their population recovered at 30 days. The population of actinomycetes and earthworm was not affected by the herbicide or its concentration. The restoration of microbial and earthworm population shows that the delicate biological balance of the soil is very little affected by application of PSE. This emphasizes the safety of chemical to soil biological balance.
Key words: rice, herbicides, pyrazosulfuron ethyl, soil micro organisms, earthworms
6. PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED MAIZE STOVER AS BASAL DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS OF MOLASSES-UREA BLOCKS
1Nyako, H.D., 1Anthony, S., 2Malgwi, I.H., 1Yahya, M.M., 3Aminu, I.M, 2Tijani I., 3Tukur, I.S., 4Ajiji I., and 2Mohammed I.D.
1Department of Animal Science and Range Management, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B 2076. Adamawa State - Nigeria.
2Department of Animal Science, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B 1069. Borno State - Nigeria
3Departments of Animal Production & Animal Health, Taraba State College of Agriculture, Jalingo - Nigeria.
4Department of Animal Health and Production, Plateau State College of Agirculture, P.M.B 001, Plateau State – Nigeria.
ABSTRACT: Sixty (60) days of feeding trial was done to determine the effects of different formulations of molasses-urea blocks as supplements on performance of Yankasa rams fed maize stover as basal diet. 12 growing Yankasa rams aged between 9-12 months with average weight of were subjected to four (4) dietary treatments consisting of three (3) replicates per treatments. The four treatments were, T1 (Maize stover alone), T2 (molasses 36%, rice offal 43%, urea 5%, cement 7% salt 9% and basal diet)), T3 (molasses 26%, rice offal 43%, urea 15%, cement 9% salt 7% and basal diet) and T4 ( Molasses 40%, rice offal 39%, urea 10%, cement 4% salt 7% and basal diet ). The highest dry matter intake was recorded in T2 (780.67g/h/day) while the lowest was recorded in T4 (531mg/h/day) with significant (P<0.05) difference between treatments. T2 has the highest water intake value with 3.16 liters while the lowest was recorded in T1 2.64 liters. Better feed conversion ratio and highest daily weight gain was obtained among rams in T2 (17.32g/day) with significant difference (P<0.05) between treatments. The result shows higher concentration of Ammonia (mg/mol) in T4 (9.97mg/100ml), and the lowest was recorded in T1 (14.95mg/100ml). The study reveals that rams supplemented with T2(molasses 36%, rice offal 43%, urea 15%, cement 9% and salt 7%) generally gave a significantly (P<0.05) higher performance in terms of dry matter intake and live weight gain. The blood parameters falls within acceptable range thus it is safe to feed the said blocks to Yankasa rams. The cost of feeding molasses – urea blocks as feed supplement to Yankasa rams as maintenance diet was observed to be relatively cheaper especially when grasses are not available.
Key Words: Basal diet, Molases, Performance, Urea, Yankasa rams, Supplemented, Stover.
7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE SKULL OF THE NILE CROCODILE (CROCODYLUS NILOTICUS)
Nora A. Shaker, Samah H. El-Bably
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted on six heads of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The heads were removed from their bodies and prepared by hot water maceration technique. The bones of the skull were studied separately and identified by using a specific acrylic color for each bone. The cranium of the crocodile composed of the cranial bones and the facial bones. The crocodile had four paired paranasal sinuses; the antorbital, the vomerine bullar, the pterygopalatine bullar and the pterygoid sinuses. The mandible of crocodile formed from six fused bones (articular, angular, suprangular, coronoid,splenial and dentary). The X ray images were applied for identifying the paranasal sinuses which their contribution to the morphological organization of the head.
Key word: Anatomy, Radiology, Cranium, Para-nasal sinuses, mandible, Nile crocodile.