Advance Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Science
Volume 1, No. 3, 2014
Table of Content
1. THE IMPORTANCE AND MANAGEMENT OPTION OF ONION THRIPS, THRIPS TABACI (L.) (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) IN ETHIOPIA: A REVIEW
Tadele Shiberu and Amin Mahammed
Abstract: Thrips attack a number of vegetable crops particularly onion thrips causing considerable economic damage on onion crops. Usually young leaves are preferred, but buds and flowers also get infested. Under severe infested conditions the leaves shed and hence plant growth is affected and their control is vital to the production and profitability of onion crop. Most onion fields need protection against onion thrips for two to three months depends on the varieties. If onion thrips are not controlled, damage can routinely reduce bulb yields. In addition to use integrated pest management, use of selective insecticides in rotation to be the most important tools for thrips control, but there are few labeled insecticides that registered in Ethiopia provide effective and consistent control. Therefore, the objective of this review was undertaken to evaluate previous work in the management of onion thrips.
Keywords : Thrips tabaci, Onion, Management.
How to Cite: TADELE SHIBERU AND AMIN MAHAMMED. THE IMPORTANCE AND MANAGEMENT OPTION OF ONION THRIPS, THRIPS TABACI (L.) (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) IN ETHIOPIA: A REVIEW. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(3): 95-102.
2. BACTERIAL BIOCONTROL OF PHLEBANCHE RAMOSA (L.) POMEL GERMINATION
Rugheim AME, Hassan MM, Osman AG, Ali AI, Mohamed IS, Abdelgani ME and Babiker AGT
Abstract: Series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of bacterial isolates and strains on Phelipanche ramosa seeds germination. All experiments were conducted at the Bio-pesticides and Bio-fertilizers Department, Environment, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI), National Centre for Research (NCR), Khartoum, Sudan. In all experiments treatments were arranged in a Randomized Complete Design (RCD) with four replicates. Twenty three soil borne bacterial isolates (15 organic nitrogen users and 8 mineral nitrogen users) and 3 bacterial strains (Bacillus circulans, B. megatherium var. phosphaticum and Azospirillum brasiliense) were tested. The results revealed that most of the organic nitrogen using bacterial isolates showed high biocontrol against P. ramosa germination compared to the mineral nitrogen using bacterial isolates. All bacterial isolates and strains inhibited P. ramosa germination. Among bacterial isolates and strains, isolate. ISO22M completely inhibited P. ramosa seeds germination (100%) in response to GR24 at the lower concentration as compared to the corresponding control. However, isolate ISO11S and Azospillirum brasilense strain enhanced germination by 18 and 26%, respectively in response to germination stimulant compared to the medium control. A promising strategy to control broomrape is the use of biological control methods via soil borne microorganisms.
Keywords: Bacteria, Germination, GR24, Phlebanche ramose.
How to Cite: RUGHEIM AME, HASSAN MM, OSMAN AG, ALI AI, MOHAMED IS, ABDELGANI ME AND BABIKER AGT. BACTERIAL BIOCONTROL OF PHLEBANCHE RAMOSA (L.) POMEL GERMINATION. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(3): 103-108.
3. WORM BURDEN OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES EXPELLED AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AFTER ANTI-HELMINTH TREATMENT IN THREE SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF DIFFERENT SOIL PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
Agbeyangi OA, Sam-Wobo SO, Mafiana CF, Ajayi JB, Asiwaju R and Agbeyangi AO
Abstract: Worm burden, Prevalence and intensity studies of Ascaris lumbricoides recovered were assessed after Antihelminthic Levamex (400 mg Levamisole) treatment of 960 school children in Ewekoro, Ado-odo - Ota and Ogun Water-side Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 986 worms were expelled with an overall prevalence of 44.0% (244/555) and mean intensity of 4.0±0.02. The highest prevalence and intensity was observed in Ogun Water-Side local government (59.1%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) at P<0.05 showed that there was significant difference in the prevalence of Ascaris infection when compare the three local government areas. The pattern of frequency distribution of Ascaris worm expelled showed a high worm burden relatively to individual children with overall mean of 3.36 ± 0.12 [Variance χ2 = 5.73(2.64)]. Greater Ascaris worms distribution was also observed in Ogun Water-Side local government with a mean of 5.2 ±0.15 [Variance χ2 = 14.2(3.0)]. Statistical analysis at P<0.05 also showed that there was significant difference in the Ascaris worm burden (distribution) in the three local government areas (P = 0.0011) while there was no significant difference in the distribution of Ascaris infection within each of the local governments (P>0.05). This may be responsible for the nuclear nature of the community coupled with their occupation which exposed both male and female children to Ascaris infection.
Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, prevalence,intensity,worm burden,school children,Nigeria.
How to Cite: Agbeyangi OA, Sam-Wobo SO, Mafiana CF, Ajayi JB, Asiwaju R, Agbeyangi AO. WORM BURDEN OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES EXPELLED AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AFTER ANTI-HELMINTH TREATMENT IN THREE SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF DIFFERENT SOIL PHYSIO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(3): 109-116.
4. SUBACUTE INTOXICATION OF A DIAZINONE60® IN MONOSEX NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS L. AND ITS RELATION TO ECONOMIC LOSSES
Talaat Saad T, Khameis El-Meadawy Z and Atallah ST
Abstract: The monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., was exposed to subacute concentration (1.46μg/l) of an organophosphorus compounds insecticide, Diazinone60 for 28 consecutive days. The mortality incidence percent due to Diazinone60 toxicity was 0 %, 25 %, 33.34 % and 41.66 % for the periods at 7-Day, 14-Days, 21-Days and 28-Days, respectively, with overall mortality rate 100 %. While, the return losses for each /100 fish was 0 , 18 , 18 and 54 LE/ 100 fish for the periods at 7-Day, 14-Days, 21-Days and 28-Days, respectively, with overall losses about 90 LE / 100 fish. Behavioural, clinical, haematological, serum biochemical and histopatho- logical consequences were assayed at a regular interval of 7 days. The abnormal behavioural responses and toxic symptoms were described. Exposure to Diazinone60 not only significantly decreased lymphocyte and basophile percentages, total leucocytic and total erythrocytic counts, haemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume value, but also caused serious effects in the form of hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperglycaemia and significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Moreover, the histopathological results indicated that the haemobiotic organs were affected by Diazinone60, primarily liver and gills. Our data suggest that subacute exposure to Diazinone60 exerts a serious metabolic distress on the fish corresponding to the exposure period. In addition, the assayed parameters and histopathological findings can be as good biomarkers of organophosphorus compounds ecosystem pollution.
Keywords: Monosex Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus L.,Diazinone60,Abnormalities,Haematopoiesis,Protein synthesis.
How to Cite: Talaat Talaat Saad, Zinab khameis el-Meadawy and Atallah ST. SUBACUTE INTOXICATION OF A DIAZINONE60® IN MONOSEX NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS L. AND ITS RELATION TO ECONOMIC LOSSES. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(3): 117-126.
5. CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH PSEUDOMONAS INFECTION IN CULTURED OREOCHROMIS SPECIES AND ITS RELATIONS TO ECONOMIC LOSSES OF FISH PRODUCTION FARMS
Saad TT, Ketkat SAA and Mohammed FA
Abstract: This study aimed to throw the light on the effect pseudomonas infection in the freshwater fish under Egyptian condition through study the clinical signs and post mortem (P.M) lesions as well as its biochemical changes also study the economic losses resulted from dead fish attributed to the incidences of pseudomonas infection. This study was carried-out on 350 of O. niloticus (mean weight 80±5g, mean length 20±2cm) and 350 of O. galilas (mean weight 70±5g, mean length 18±1cm) were collected from commercial fish farms in Behera Province. The fish stocks received regular health checks and differentiate to both species and enteric red mouth (ERM) had not been found. Fish were acclimated for one week in the laboratory of the Dept. of Avian and Aquatic Animal Medicine of Alexandria University before any experimentation was started. This study, showed that pseudomonas infection in freshwater fish causes high mortality, with severe changes in blood parameters as RBCs and WBCs as well as the serum enzymes as GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphates, also the changes extended to include the total serum proteins, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio, with severe histological changes in liver, kidney, spleen and gills. The results also showed severe economic losses due to high mortality in O.niloticus and O. galilus and reached to 57.75, 14.40 and 43.20 LE/100 fish for control fish, infected; vaccine treated fish and starved of O. niloticus fish, respectively. While, in O.galilus the losses were 135, 15 and 37.50 LE/100 fish for the same groups respectively, the results also cleared that, the best method for decreasing the economic losses of pseudomonas infection is the vaccination of the fish against Pseudomonas infection.
Keywords: Pseudomonas,Oreochromis,Economic Losses,Fish.
How to Cite: Saad TT, Sara AA Ketkat and Fardos A Mohammed. CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH PSEUDOMONAS INFECTION IN CULTURED OREOCHROMIS SPECIES AND ITS RELATIONS TO ECONOMIC LOSSES OF FISH PRODUCTION FARMS. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(3): 127-137.