Advance Research in Agriculture and Veterinary Science
Volume 1, No. 2, 2014
Table of Content
1. A REVIEW BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG DRYING, CURVE FITTING AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN FOOD SYSTEMS
Abstract: Drying process extends the shelf life stability of foods that preserve the quality and food stability by removal of water. Several drying methods are being used such as microwave, vacuum-microwave, freeze drying, convective air, spray drying, fluidized bed drying and infrared-convective for drying purposes.There is a close relationship between deteriorative reactions and final moisture contents in food materials. The final moisture content affects the storage capabilities and shelf-life of foods and to predict the moisture contents of foods mathematical models are being used at any drying time. The correlation coefficient (R2), the reduced chi-square (x2) and root mean square of error (RMSE %) are used to fit to the models for drying curves. Increase drying temperature,drying air,microwave heating watts result an increase in drying rate and effective moisture diffusivity. Drying with microwave method is effective method for food preservation and rate of drying is higher than traditional drying methods.Microwave or infrared drying enhances drying rate and rapid process that creates a porous,crispy and delicious texture of the food samples.
Keywords: Drying Systems,Final Moisture Content,Mathematical Models,Curve Fittings,Microwave,İnfared Drying.
How to Cite: FARUK GAMLI. A REVIEW BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG DRYING, CURVE FITTING AND MATHEMATICAL MODELS IN FOOD SYSTEMS. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 47-53.
2. A REVIEW OF APPLICATION OF PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE PRODUCTION OF LIQUID/SEMI-LIQUID FOOD MATERIALS
Abstract: Thermal methods are being used in the production of food materials generally.Aplication of heat to foods causes deterioration of food components so food manufacturers have begun searching for new methods that cause less damaging food components.Non-thermal methods are being used in the production of foods such as ultrasound, gamma radiation, high hydrostatic pressure and pulsed electric field treatment lately. Pulsed electric field treatment is a new method as non-thermal methods that being used in processing of liquid samples without any significant effects on physicochemical properties of food samples. The pulsed electric field method consists of pulse generator, switches, treatment chamber, cooling section and monitoring system. Microbial inactivation and enzyme destruction of fruit/vegetable juices, milk and liquid egg samples can be assured by pulsed electric filed treatment successfully. Increase in current intensity, pulse width causes higher microbiaI inactivation and enzyme destruction.
Keywords: non-thermal methods,pulsed electric field,current intensity,microbial and enzyme destruction.
How to Cite: FARUK GAMLI. A REVIEW OF APPLICATION OF PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD IN THE PRODUCTION OF LIQUID/SEMI-LIQUID FOOD MATERIALS. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 54-61.
3. STUDY OF FRONT LINE DEMONSTRATION (FLD) ON MUSTARD
Rakesh N. Patel, Mayur M. Prajapati, Rakesh D. Dhandhukia And Faljibhai K. Chaudhari
Abstract: To accelerate the production of crops, ICAR has started FLD programme through KVK. Latest recommended package of practices are demonstrated on farmers field. Technologies generated by scientists are of no use unless adopted by farmers. With a view to know the extent of adoption of Mustard production technologies before and after FLD given by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Deesa, the study was under taken. Majority of Mustard growers adopted timely sowing, line sowing and application of basal fertilizer.
Keywords: Krishi Vigyan Kendra,Mustard,FLD,Banaskantha district.
How to Cite: PATEL RN, PRAJAPATI MM, DHANDHUKIA RD and CHAUDHARI FK. STUDY OF FRONT LINE DEMONSTRATION (FLD) ON MUSTARD. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 62-64.
4. ANALYSIS OF SOIL MICROBIAL HEALTH AND PYOLUTEORIN GENE ANALYSIS OF THE PADDY RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF THE SALINE COASTAL AGRICULTURE SYSTEM OF KANCHEPURAM DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA
Vasanthabharathi V and Jayalakshmi S
Abstract: Paddy rhizosphere Soil samples were collected from different sites along the coastal agriculture belt of Kanchepuram district, Tamil Nadu,India.. The intact root systems from all host plants were collected and soils closely adhering to the roots were used for our studies. The rhisozphere soil samples are named as D1 to D22 and their salinity were recorded. High leval of saliniy was recorded with D17. Minimum was observed with D1.Bacterial population was high in D14, low in D18.Fungal population was high in D16 low in D2.Actinomycete population was high count with D12, minimum in D11. Our results demonstrate clearly that expression of the pyoluteorin biosynthetic genes at different level of salinity in the rhizosphere soil was not affected. It can also be inferred that those Pseudomonas sp which produce pyoluteorin were also not affected by the different levels of salinity.
Keywords: Paddy,Rhizosphere, Pyoluteorin,Salinity.
How to Cite: VASANTHABHARATHI V, JAYALAKSHMI S. ANALYSIS OF SOIL MICROBIAL HEALTH AND PYOLUTEORIN GENE ANALYSIS OF THE PADDY RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF THE SALINE COASTAL AGRICULTURE SYSTEM OF KANCHEPURAM DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 65-71.
5. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NA2SO4 AT GROWTH STAGE
Muhammad Umair, Umbrin Ilyas and Sobia Ikram
Abstract: Pot experiments were done at Nursery of University of Gujrat, Pakistan in 2011 for the study of Na2SO4 effect on maize (Zea mays L.) at growth stage. 32-B-33 Pioneer variety of maize was used. The pot experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four salt concentrations and four replicates under the greenhouse condition. Sulfate treatments were applied to maize by dissolving Ammunion sulphate salts in distilled water. There were four levels of Na2SO4 (0, 50 mM, 100 mM and 150mM) used on growth of plant. The experimental soil was salinized with Na2SO4 at the rates of 0, 50, 100 and 150mM Na2SO4. Growth of the maize plants was inhibited by salinity. Enhancements of growth were observed at 50mM Na2SO4 in maize. The strongest inhibition of growth occurred at the high salt concentration (150mM). Applied Na2SO4 significantly decreased dry mass of maize plants. All the growth attributes such as root and shoots lengths and plant fresh weight decreased with increase in salinity levels. It was observed that salinity had adverse effect on growth of maize. It was concluded that water potential changes caused reduction of root length and leaf area in maize under salt stress. Water potential changes caused by salt concentrations in growth medium and salinity had adverse effect in growth.
Keywords: Morphological Variations,Maize,Na2SO4,Growth Stage.
How to Cite: MUHAMMAD UMAIR, UMBRIN ILYAS, SOBIA IKRAM. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NA2SO4 AT GROWTH STAGE. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 72-77.
6. DIVERSITY OF AVIFAUNA AND EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON BIRDS AT TAWA RESERVOIR AREA OF HOSHANGABAD DISTRICT (MADHYA PRADESH) INDIA
Pragati Joshi and Vinod K. Krishna
Abstract: The birds of Tawa Reservoir (located at Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh) were studied by using the Line Transect methodology. Five different stations were selected to determine bird species and seasonal diversity at Tawa Reservoir and its surrounding areas. The Shannon-Weinner Index was used to ascertain bird diversity. During the observation period totally 74 bird species belonging to 14 orders and 33 families were determined and listed. Among these species three near threatened species, namely Darter (Anhinga melanogaster), Oriental white Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), and Malabar pied Hornbill (Anthracoceros coronatus) were also recorded. The density of these bird species were less but their presence indicated that the area is favorable for conservation of these species. The result also shows that the wetland area, agriculture land and surrounding vegetation are favorable environmental conditions suitable for the migratory, resident as well as the threatened species of birds. But apart from this, the interference of human activities i.e. agriculture, deforestation etc is also increasing day by day. So, the anthropogenic activities such as use of chemicals in agriculture land, and logging will affect adversely the bio-diversity of birds at this region in future.
Keywords: Anthropogenic,Diversity,Line transect,Shannon-Weinner Index,Species.
How to Cite: PRAGATI JOSHI, VINOD K. KRISHNA. DIVERSITY OF AVIFAUNA AND EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON BIRDS AT TAWA RESERVOIR AREA OF HOSHANGABAD DISTRICT (MADHYA PRADESH) INDIA. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 78-82.
7. MEASUREMENT OF THE EXISTING SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD OF THE TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL FARMERS
Prajapati M, Solanki KD, Patel R and Dhandhukia R
Abstract: Sustainable Livelihood security to basic human needs food security, sustainable agricultural practices and poverty and describes as an integrating concept. A Livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a means of living; a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks and maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets. The present study was conducted in Sabarkantha district of North Gujarat region of Gujarat State, as the economy of the districts basically dependent on agriculture and the district ranks first with respect to tribal population amongst the districts of North Gujarat region. It is seen that only 14 villages out of 1.372 were having percentage range of scheduled tribes population of 41-50, covered in Khedbrahma, Vijaynagar, Bhiloda and Meghraj talukas of the district. Among these four talukas considering the numbers of villages Meghraj and Bhiloda talukas were selected purposively. All 11 villages of Bhiloda and Meghraj talukas, having scheduled tribes population of 41-50 range of percentage were selected purposively. Ten tribal farmers and ten non-tribal farmers from each village were selected randomly. Thus, total 220 farmers were selected. Sustainable livelihood was measured through three different indicators viz., social, economic and environmental indicator. To measure these indicators a teacher made test was developed, and total 12 sub indicators were determined. The score of sub indicators were given by organizing conference method of the teachers. All indicators score were summed up to get the Sustainable Livelihood Index (SLI) of individual respondent. It was found that the average mean score of all the selected sub indicators of S.L.I. of non-tribal respondents were higher than tribal respondents. The indicators of sustainable livelihood in both groups of farmers were differentiating with some specific indicators viz., consumption pattern, cultural events, tradition, health services and financial system. Which were indicated the standard and the gap of sustainable livelihood between the tribal and non-tribal respondents. The majority (90.91%) of the tribal respondents were having low to medium extent of sustainable livelihood. In the case of non-tribal respondents 87.27 per cent were having medium to high extent of sustainable livelihood.
Keywords: Agriculture,Sustainable Livelihood,Tribal,Farmers.
How to Cite: PRAJAPATI M, SOLANKI KD, PATEL R, DHANDHUKIA R. MEASUREMENT OF THE EXISTING SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD OF THE TRIBAL AND NON-TRIBAL FARMERS. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 83-87.
8. EVALUATION OF SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE MICROBIAL AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF IMO RIVER ESTUARY OF THE NIGER DELTA MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM
Unimke AA, Antai SP, Agbor RB, Nseabasi NO and Agbo BE
Abstract: Evaluation of seasonal variation in the microbial and heavy metal content in Imo River estuary of the Niger Delta mangrove ecosystem using standard analytical methods was carried out on samples collected. The study was conducted during the wet and dry seasons (August and November). The results obtained showed that the sediment samples had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher counts of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) than the surface and sub-surface water samples. However, the sediment samples during the dry season had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher counts of THB than the wet season (2.55 ± 2.34 × 107 cfug-1 and 2.46 ± 2.20 × 107 cfug-1) respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the population of THB in the surface water during the wet and dry seasons (2.23 ± 2.23 × 106 cfuml-1 and 2.39 ±1.63 × 106 cfuml-1) respectively, while there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the population of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in the sub-surface water during the dry and the wet seasons (2.27 ±2.00 × 106 cfuml-1 and 2.13 ± 1.84 × 106 cfuml-1) respectively. The total fungal (TF) densities in the surface water were 1.17 ± 0.93 x 105 cfuml-1 and 1.38 ± 0.63 x 105 cfuml-1 during the wet and dry seasons respectively, the mean densities of 1.15 ± 0.63 x 105 cfuml-1 and 1.30 ± 0.48 x 105 cfuml-1 were observed in the sub-surface water during the wet and dry seasons respectively, while in the sediments, the mean densities observed were 1.42 ± 1.19 x 106 cfug-1 and 1.60 ± 1.05 x 106 cfug-1 during the wet and dry seasons respectively. The results obtained also indicate that the water and sediment samples show a remarkable variation in the concentrations of heavy metals during the wet and dry seasons.
Keywords: Microbial,Heavy metals,Surface,Sub-surface,Sediment.
How to Cite: UNIMKE AA, ANTAI SP, AGBOR RB,NSEABASI NO, AGBO BE. EVALUATION OF SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE MICROBIAL AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF IMO RIVER ESTUARY OF THE NIGER DELTA MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM. Adv. Res. Agri. Vet. Sci. 2014; 1(2): 88-94.